Literature reviews 2020

Authors: Amalia Ran and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
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Abstract:
This literature review focuses on coherent teacher education programs in Israel and around the globe. In recent years, increases the criticism on behalf of policymakers and the public concerning the little use of information infrastructures and skills development to a proficiency level among teachers. Furthermore, there is criticism concerning the irrelevance of theoretical contents obtained in academic courses to the practical experience in the field. The lack of reflection on teacher learning processes; the tendency to ignore different types of assessment concerning teacher education and professional development; lack of shared vision in teacher education programs; and limited collaborations between all stakeholders in the education system, are other deficiencies raised in this context.
Coherence in teacher education programs is an ongoing and consistent process. Despite the ambiguity of the term “coherence” in education, we may identify certain principles and areas according to which coherent teacher education programs are constituted. First, a vision shared by all stakeholders (schools, academic institutions, ministries of education, education districts, other professional organizations (characterize coherent programs. Second, there is a link between the academic, methodological and pedagogical contents in the curriculum, as well as a relationship between the theoretical contents and the practical experience in the field. Third, coherent program maintain active research and inquiry for continuous assessment purposes. Fourth, coherent programs promote partnerships and collaborations among all agencies responsible for teacher education.
In this framework, we study five models of coherent teacher education programs around the world: The STEP (Stanford Teacher Education Program) at the University of Stanford in California, United States; The ATOM (Accomplished Teachers of Mathematics and Science) program for elementary school teachers in sciences and mathematics at the University of North Carolina, United States; Teacher education programs in Finland; SHAHAF program in Kay College in Israel; NAHAR pilot program in Lewinsky College in Israel. These programs promote coherence as an ongoing process, which requires modifications and adjustments along the way, as part of the lifelong-learning perception in the shifting circumstances of the twenty-first century.
Authors: Amalia Ran and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
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Abstract:
This literature review focuses on teacher education of Bedouin teachers, their integration to the education system, and their professional development process. The challenges with which Bedouin teachers face upon applying for institutions of higher education, during their academic years and while applying to the job market are discussed in the studies and reports analyzed here. In this framework, we review the factors that shape Bedouin teachers’ choice of career in education, as well as the barriers and obstacles on their road for professionalism. Among these barriers: gaps in student achievements; lower rates of students’ graduation; higher teacher attrition rates, financial difficulties, cultural and social differences, language barriers, and lack of infrastructure in every sphere of life as compared with the general population in Israel.

 These challenges shape Bedouin teachers’ career and their integration in the education system in each phase of their development as professional educators: upon applying to teacher education programs; during their learning experience and the induction year; and during their professional development process. It appears that the decision to become teachers is driven by practical calculations, such as job security; tenure for financial stability; geographical accessibility of the academic institution, and the availability of public transportation to and from the institution; the length of the rogram; or admission requirements. Female preservice teachers from the Bedouin society are driven by personal and ideological motives as well. They act as social agents to promote transformation and partnership in cultural and institutional processes. The education field enables Bedouin female educators to maintain their traditional family roles according to Bedouin norms while providing for their families. The long-term effect of socio-economic, cultural, linguistic and ethnic inequalities is emphasized also in the shortage of qualified high-school teachers with proper training and specialization in Bedouin schools. By reducing the information gaps in
regards to these challenges and barriers, teacher education programs may better cater their aid services and curriculum to meet the needs of Bedouin preservice teachers. Further research is required in order to provide decision-makers with accurate data for their policy purposes.

 

Authors: Barak Bar-Zohar and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
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Abstract:
The current analytic literature review defines teacher shortage, divides this concept into five categories (Extreme, general, subjective, peripheral, and professional), explains the causes of the shortage, such as teachers’ status teachers’ salary, teacher retirement and teacher attrition, and presents the shortage’s outcomes globally and locally, in urban and rural areas, as well as in disadvantaged and remote schools. To this end, this literature review focuses on United States addition, the current review analyzes the consequences of teacher shortage in subjects that face major difficulties to recruit and retain teachers: Mathematics, Sciences, English (as a foreign language) and special education.
In order to deal with the teacher shortage, the present analytic literature review suggests the following ideas, initiatives and strategies: Prediction model, teacher recruitment, alternative certification, teacher mentorship, hiring uncertified teachers, online learning, financial, benefits, teacher promotion and substitute teachers. To sum, this review discusses these strategies and finds the image prestige and status of the teaching profession, as well as financial benefits as holistic and radical reforms which are preferable to deal with the general teacher shortage.
Authors: Barak Bar-Zohar and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
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Abstract:
The current literature review presents a wide spectrum of educational leadership and entrepreneurship programs designated for B.A. graduates, novice teachers, master teachers, experienced teachers and vice principals in rural and underprivileged schools in Canada, United Kingdom, United States and Israel.
The duration of these educational leadership and entrepreneurship programs lengths between a week and two years and includes mentoring and support throughout the first months, or years, after the program. During the program, the teachers continue their routine work at their school, while dedicating one weekday and/or weekends to the program, in addition to conferences, workshops and field trips. Doing so, they still receive a full salary. In most cases, the teachers’ principals are obliged to discharge them from teaching during program days. But, at the same time, the programs need to provide the principals with worthy replacements.
This review highlighted the benefits of these programs, as most participants reported an improvement with respect to their creativity, teamwork and leadership skills. However, they also faced difficulties dealing with underprivileged communities, limited resources and financial problems.
Authors: Amalia Ran and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
Academic Advisor: Nirit Raichel
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Abstract:
Clear distinctions between learning and leisure spaces; public and private spheres; formal and non-formal learning frameworks, between information providers and costumers, no longer exist. Moreover, continuous transformations during the information era lead to the disintegration of traditional learning models, which no longer apply to describe current educational processes, which expand throughout life and beyond the framework of formal learning in schools and in academic institutions. The term “lifelong learning” alludes to this new perception, which views learning as an ongoing process of learning throughout life, from cradle to death. During this process, learners acquire knowledge, new skills, wide education and tools for personal and professional development, for active citizenship and social inclusion, and for integration in the 21st labor market.
This literature review focuses on the definition of the concept “lifelong learning”, the theoretical framework, and the various expressions of lifelong learning tendencies in the educational field as well as the professional world. The review also summarizes the desired skills, infrastructure for implementing lifelong learning, as required changes in educational paradigms in order to implement lifelong learning processes at the local, national and international levels.
Authors: Barak Bar-Zohar and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
Academic Advisor: Ditza Maskit
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Abstract:
The current analytic literature review examines induction and mentoring processes among secondary school STEM second career teachers (SCT). This literature review focuses upon the factors which promote, or affect, the teachers’ success. In addition, the present literature review discusses the ways in which school climate influence SCTs, the role of school dministrators, the induction tracks within the school, the evaluation procedures and the role of professional identity development.
Findings show that in order to pass the induction stage as well as manage their new career successfully, the SCTs should be provided with a supporting professional network comprised of several members, such as a mentor, teachers-colleagues, administrators, counselor principal and inspector. Additionally, the school should offer a productive evaluation process
that fits both the SCT’s professional background as well as the school’s culture. These factors may help SCTs “survive” the first year, interact with new colleagues, adjust themselves to their new position and develop a new professional identity.
School principals must be involved in the mentoring process and manage a cadre of mentors for STEM teachers. Furthermore, schools need to provide the SCTs time for professional development, refrain from assigning them with extra chores and develop a mentoring program customized for SCTs in general and STEM teachers in particular.