Literature reviews 2020
Authors: Amalia Ran and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
This literature review focuses on coherent teacher education programs in Israel and around the globe. In recent years, increases the criticism on behalf of policymakers and the public concerning the little use of information infrastructures and skills development to a proficiency level among teachers. Furthermore, there is criticism concerning the irrelevance of theoretical contents obtained in academic courses to the practical experience in the field. The lack of reflection on teacher learning processes; the tendency to ignore different types of assessment concerning teacher education and professional development; lack of shared vision in teacher education programs; and limited collaborations between all stakeholders in the education system, are other deficiencies raised in this context.
Coherence in teacher education programs is an ongoing and consistent process. Despite the ambiguity of the term “coherence” in education, we may identify certain principles and areas according to which coherent teacher education programs are constituted. First, a vision shared by all stakeholders (schools, academic institutions, ministries of education, education districts, other professional organizations (characterize coherent programs. Second, there is a link between the academic, methodological and pedagogical contents in the curriculum, as well as a relationship between the theoretical contents and the practical experience in the field. Third, coherent program maintain active research and inquiry for continuous assessment purposes. Fourth, coherent programs promote partnerships and collaborations among all agencies responsible for teacher education.
In this framework, we study five models of coherent teacher education programs around the world: The STEP (Stanford Teacher Education Program) at the University of Stanford in California, United States; The ATOM (Accomplished Teachers of Mathematics and Science) program for elementary school teachers in sciences and mathematics at the University of North Carolina, United States; Teacher education programs in Finland; SHAHAF program in Kay College in Israel; NAHAR pilot program in Lewinsky College in Israel. These programs promote coherence as an ongoing process, which requires modifications and adjustments along the way, as part of the lifelong-learning perception in the shifting circumstances of the twenty-first century.
Authors: Amalia Ran and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
This literature review focuses on teacher education of Bedouin teachers, their integration to the education system, and their professional development process. The challenges with which Bedouin teachers face upon applying for institutions of higher education, during their academic years and while applying to the job market are discussed in the studies and reports analyzed here. In this framework, we review the factors that shape Bedouin teachers’ choice of career in education, as well as the barriers and obstacles on their road for professionalism. Among these barriers: gaps in student achievements; lower rates of students’ graduation; higher teacher attrition rates, financial difficulties, cultural and social differences, language barriers, and lack of infrastructure in every sphere of life as compared with the general population in Israel.
These challenges shape Bedouin teachers’ career and their integration in the education system in each phase of their development as professional educators: upon applying to teacher education programs; during their learning experience and the induction year; and during their professional development process. It appears that the decision to become teachers is driven by practical calculations, such as job security; tenure for financial stability; geographical accessibility of the academic institution, and the availability of public transportation to and from the institution; the length of the rogram; or admission requirements. Female preservice teachers from the Bedouin society are driven by personal and ideological motives as well. They act as social agents to promote transformation and partnership in cultural and institutional processes. The education field enables Bedouin female educators to maintain their traditional family roles according to Bedouin norms while providing for their families. The long-term effect of socio-economic, cultural, linguistic and ethnic inequalities is emphasized also in the shortage of qualified high-school teachers with proper training and specialization in Bedouin schools. By reducing the information gaps in
regards to these challenges and barriers, teacher education programs may better cater their aid services and curriculum to meet the needs of Bedouin preservice teachers. Further research is required in order to provide decision-makers with accurate data for their policy purposes.
Authors: Barak Bar-Zohar and Liat Josefsberg Ben-Yehoshua
The current analytic literature review defines teacher shortage, divides this concept into five categories (Extreme, general, subjective, peripheral, and professional), explains the causes of the shortage, such as teachers’ status teachers’ salary, teacher retirement and teacher attrition, and presents the shortage’s outcomes globally and locally, in urban and rural areas, as well as in disadvantaged and remote schools. To this end, this literature review focuses on United States addition, the current review analyzes the consequences of teacher shortage in subjects that face major difficulties to recruit and retain teachers: Mathematics, Sciences, English (as a foreign language) and special education.
In order to deal with the teacher shortage, the present analytic literature review suggests the following ideas, initiatives and strategies: Prediction model, teacher recruitment, alternative certification, teacher mentorship, hiring uncertified teachers, online learning, financial, benefits, teacher promotion and substitute teachers. To sum, this review discusses these strategies and finds the image prestige and status of the teaching profession, as well as financial benefits as holistic and radical reforms which are preferable to deal with the general teacher shortage.
Educational leadership and entrepreneurship programs for master teachers in rural and underprivileged schools